- One of the central themes in The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao is the invasive sense of individuality that permeates the entire storyline, down to the way it is written. Each character is given a heightened sense of identity and unique perspective that is separate from that of another.
- This is even apparent in how the story is broken up: eight chapters broken up by characters or events. The singularity and dichotomy of each chapter highlights the goal of Diaz to make each one separate but at the same time retain their intermingled nature.
- Another central theme that prevails throughout the story is the intermingling of two cultures. As a first-generation Dominican-American, Oscar struggles to balance the two cultures.